Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor). It is one of the oldest and most common recreational substances, causing the characteristic effects of alcohol intoxication ("drunkenness").
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on alcohol (ethanol).
Caffeine is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. The most well-known source of caffeine is the coffee bean. Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by steeping the plant product in water, a process called infusion. Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are very popular.
Some people experience sleep disruption or anxiety if they consume caffeine, but others show little disturbance.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on caffeine.
Gluten is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats, related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, kamut, etc.) and products of these (such as malt). Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for their viscoelastic properties. It gives elasticity to dough, helping it rise and keep its shape and often gives the final product a chewy texture.
Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten, which include celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), wheat allergy, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH).
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on gluten.
Trans fat, or trans-unsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature, but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats for use in margarine, snack food, packaged baked goods, and frying fast food starting in the 1950s.
Although trans fats are edible, consumption of trans fats has been shown to increase the risk of coronary artery disease in part by raising levels of the lipoprotein LDL (often referred to as "bad cholesterol"), lowering levels of the lipoprotein HDL (often referred to as "good cholesterol"), increasing triglycerides in the bloodstream and promoting systemic inflammation.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on trans fats.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) in diameter and may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are an important spice in many regional foods.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on mustard seeds.
Corn, also known as maize, is a cereal grain. It has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with total production surpassing that of wheat or rice.
Corn contains lipid transfer protein, an indigestible protein that survives cooking. This protein has been linked to a rare and understudied allergy to corn in humans. The allergic reaction can cause skin rash, swelling or itching of mucous membranes, diarrhea, vomiting, asthma and, in severe cases, anaphylaxis. It is unclear how common this allergy is in the general population.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on corn.
Lupin (or lupine) is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family. The legume seeds of lupins are commonly called lupin beans. are high in protein, dietary fiber, and antioxidants, very low in starch, and like all legumes, are gluten-free. Lupins can be used to make a variety of foods both sweet and savoury, including everyday meals, traditional fermented foods, baked foods, and sauces.
A risk of lupine allergy exists in patients allergic to peanuts.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on lupin.
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne. Sesame seed is a common ingredient in various cuisines. It is used whole in cooking for its rich, nutty flavour. Sesame seeds are sometimes added to breads, including bagels and the tops of hamburger buns. Sesame seeds may be baked into crackers, often in the form of sticks. Sesame oil is sometimes used as a cooking oil in different parts of the world, though different forms have different characteristics for high-temperature frying. The "toasted" form of the oil (as distinguished from the "cold-pressed" form) has a distinctive pleasant aroma and taste, and is used as table condiment in some regions, especially in East Asia.
Although sesame leaves are edible as a leaf vegetable, recipes for Korean cuisine calling for "sesame leaves" are often a mistranslation, and really mean perilla.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on sesame.
Soybean or soya bean is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds. Soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein (TVP), are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional non-fermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto and tempeh.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on soybeans.
Celery is a marshland plant that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves, or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is also used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine.
Celery is among a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions; for people with celery allergy, exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac, or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on celery.
Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. Liquorice flavours are used as candies or sweeteners, particularly in some European and Middle Eastern countries. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds. Excessive consumption of liquorice (more than 2 mg/kg/day of pure glycyrrhizinic acid, a liquorice component) may result in adverse effects, such as hypokalemia, increased blood pressure, and muscle weakness.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on licorice.
Mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines (notably Chinese, Korean, European, and Japanese). Though neither meat nor vegetable, mushrooms are known as the "meat" of the vegetable world.
A number of species of mushrooms are poisonous; although some resemble certain edible species, consuming them could be fatal. Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should only be undertaken by individuals knowledgeable in mushroom identification. Common best practice is for wild mushroom pickers to focus on collecting a small number of visually distinctive, edible mushroom species that cannot be easily confused with poisonous varieties.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on mushrooms.
The peanut is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds. It is classified as both a grain legume and, because of its high oil content, an oil crop.
Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and a relatively high smoke point. Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground dry roasted peanuts. It often contains additional ingredients that modify the taste or texture, such as salt, sweeteners or emulsifiers. Peanut flour is lower in fat than peanut butter, and has high protein content. It is used as a gluten-free solution.
Refined peanut oil will not cause allergic reactions in most people with peanut allergies. However, crude (unrefined) peanut oils have been shown to contain protein, which may cause allergic reactions.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on peanuts.
A tree nut allergy is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from tree nuts and edible tree seeds causing an overreaction of the immune system which may lead to severe physical symptoms. Tree nuts include, but are not limited to
almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, chestnuts, filberts/hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pistachios, pine nuts and walnuts.
Tree nut allergies are distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes, whereas a tree nut is a hard-shelled nut.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on tree nut allergy.
Any food that includes animal products is not vegan. Conversely, any food that does not contain animal products is vegan.
Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of either the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism.
Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, seafood, eggs, dairy, or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool, and silk), toiletries and similar. The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude dairy products. Ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or use of animal products.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on veganism.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, cheese, and butter.
Dairy products can cause problems for individuals who have lactose intolerance or a milk allergy. Some groups avoid dairy products for non-health related reasons.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on dairy products.
Lactose is a disaccharide. It is a sugar composed of galactose and glucose. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk (by weight). In people who are lactose intolerant, lactose is not broken down and provides food for gas-producing gut flora, which can lead to diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and other gastrointestinal symptoms.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on lactose.
Eggs laid by many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, roe, and caviar, but by a wide margin the egg most often humanly consumed is the chicken egg, typically unfertilized.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on eggs.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Meat is mainly composed of water, protein, and fat. It is edible raw, but is normally eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Many religions have rules about which meat may or may not be eaten, and vegetarian people abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat or about the effects of meat production or consumption.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on meat.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide. Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon, bacon and sausage are examples of preserved pork.
Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Muslim dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes. The sale of pork is limited in Israel and illegal in certain Muslim countries.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on pork.
Throughout history, humans have utilized fish as a food source. Overall, about one-sixth of the world's protein is estimated to be provided by fish. Popular species include herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, and salmon.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on fish.
Molluscs, especially bivalves such as clams and mussels, have been an important food source since at least the advent of anatomically modern humans. Other commonly eaten molluscs include octopuses and squids, whelks, oysters, and scallops.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on molluscs.
Crustaceans form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles. Many crustaceans are consumed by humans, and nearly 10,700,000 tons were produced in 2007; the vast majority of this output is of decapod crustaceans: crabs, lobsters, shrimp, crawfish, and prawns.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on crustaceans.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and has about the same relative sweetness as granulated sugar.
Although honey is generally safe when taken in typical food amounts, there are various, potential adverse effects or interactions it may have in combination with excessive consumption, existing disease conditions or drugs.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on honey.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose.
A 2003 WHO technical report provided evidence that high intake of sugary drinks (including fruit juice) increased the risk of obesity by adding to overall energy intake. The World Health Organization recommends that both adults and children reduce the intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on sugar.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are produced by nature, and others produced synthetically. Those that are not produced by nature are, in general, called artificial sweeteners.
A class of sugar substitutes is known as high-intensity sweeteners. These are compounds with many times the sweetness of sucrose, common table sugar. As a result, much less sweetener is required and energy contribution is often negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds (the "sweetness profile") is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used in complex mixtures that achieve the most natural sweet sensation. In the United States, six high-intensity sugar substitutes have been approved for use: aspartame, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame potassium (Ace-K), saccharin, and advantame.
Some plant-derived sugar substitutes are: Erythritol, Lactitol, Mogrosite (typically extracted from monk fruit), Maltodextrin, Sorbitol, Stevia, and Xylitol. Erythritol, Sorbitol, Xylitol and Lactitol are examples of sugar alcohols (also known as polyols).
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on sugar substitutes.
Sulfites (or sulphites) are substances that naturally occur in some foods and the human body. They are also used as regulated food additives.
Sulfites occur naturally in all wines to some extent. Organic wines are not necessarily sulfite-free, but generally have lower amounts and regulations stipulate lower maximum sulfite contents for these wines. In general, white wines contain more sulfites than red wines and sweeter wines contain more sulfites than drier ones. Sulfites are often used as preservatives in dried fruits, preserved radish, and dried potato products. Most beers no longer contain sulfites, although some alcoholic ciders contain them. Although shrimp are sometimes treated with sulfites on fishing vessels, the chemical may not appear on the label.
The above is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article on sulfite.